Heart of Gold - Publications

There are several publications describing Heart of Gold and the applications created on top of it.

Below mentioned are papers which describe the Heart of Gold middleware itself. Components describe NLP components that have already been integrated. Please not that some of the components have been provided by others and cannot be made downloadable from this web page. In this case, please contact the authors directly. Choose Applications for viewing publications describing various applications that have been developed on the basis of the Heart of Gold.

Papers describing the core technology of Heart of Gold

  1. Schäfer, Ulrich. Integrating Deep and Shallow Natural Language Processing Components - Representations and Hybrid Architectures. Doctoral Dissertation. Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany, 2007. Also as Vol. 22 of the Saarbrücken Dissertation Series in Computational Linguistics and Language Technology. pdf bibtex

  2. Schäfer, Ulrich. Middleware for Creating and Combining Multi-dimensional NLP Markup. Proceedings of the EACL-2006 Workshop on Multi-dimensional Markup in Natural Language Processing. Trento, Italy, 2006. pp. 81-84. pdf bibtex

  3. Schäfer, Ulrich. Heart of Gold User and Developer Documentation. DFKI, Saarbrücken, 2005. pdf bibtex

  4. Callmeier, Ulrich, Eisele, Andreas, Schäfer, Ulrich, and Siegel, Melanie. The DeepThought Core Architecture Framework. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC) 2004. ELRA. Lisbon, Portugal. 2004. pp. 1205-1208. pdf bibtex

  5. Schäfer, Ulrich. Using XSLT for the Integration of Deep and Shallow Natural Language Processing Components. Proceedings of the ESSLLI-2004 Workhop on Combining Shallow and Deep Processing for NLP. Nancy, France. 2004. pp. 31-40. pdf bibtex

Three classes for module configuration and module startup are courtesy of MEMPHIS:

  1. Walter Kasper, Jörg Steffen, Jakub Piskorski, and Paul Buitelaar. Integrated Language Technologies for Multilingual Information Services in the MEMPHIS Project. Proceedings of LREC-2004. Lisbon, Portugal. 2004.

The MRS/RMRS semantics representation format is basically described in the following publications.

  1. Ann Copestake, Dan Flickinger, Ivan A. Sag, and Carl Pollard. Minimal recursion semantics: An Introduction. Journal of Research on Language and Computation, Volume 3, Number 3, pages 281-332, 2005. pdf

  2. Ann Copestake. Report on the design of RMRS. Technical Report D1.1b. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. 2003. pdf