Heart of Gold - Publications - Components

There are several publications describing Heart of Gold and the applications created on top of it.

Below mentioned are papers which describe components for which adapters have been implemented (some have been developed outside DFKI). Publications describe the Middleware itself. Choose Applications for viewing publications describing various applications that have been developed on the basis of the Heart of Gold.

Further related publications can be found on delph-in.net.


  1. Brants, Thorsten. TnT - A Statistical Part-of-Speech Tagger. 6th Applied Natural Language Processing (ANLP '00), April 29 - May 4. Seattle, USA. 2000. pp. 224-231. pdf


  1. Helmut Schmid. Probabilistic Part-of-Speech Tagging Using Decision Trees. Proceedings of International Conference on New Methods in Language Processing. Manchester, UK. September 1994. pdf

  2. Helmut Schmid. Improvements in Part-of-Speech Tagging with an Application to German. Proceedings of the EACL SIGDAT-Workshop. Dublin, Ireland. March 1995. pdf


  1. Wojciech Skut and Thorsten Brants. Chunk Tagger: Statistical Recognition of Noun Phrases. ESSLLI-1998 Workshop on Automated Acquisition of Syntax and Parsing. Saarbrücken. 1998. pdf

  2. Frank, Anette, Spreyer, Kathrin, Drozdzynski, Witold, Krieger, Hans-Ulrich, and Schäfer, Ulrich. Constraint-Based RMRS Construction from Shallow Grammars. Proceedings of the HPSG04 Conference Workshop on Semantics in Grammar Engineering. Leuven, Belgium. 8 2004. pdf


  1. Becker, Markus, Drozdzynski, Witold, Krieger, Hans-Ulrich, Piskorski, Jakub, Schäfer, Ulrich, and Xu, Feiyu. SProUT - Shallow Processing with Typed Feature Structures and Unification. Proceedings of the International Conference on NLP (ICON 2002). December 18-21. Mumbai, India. 2002. pdf

  2. Witold Drozdzynski, Hans-Ulrich Krieger, Jakub Piskorski, Ulrich Schäfer, and Feiyu Xu. Shallow Processing with Unification and Typed Feature Structures - Foundations and Applications. Künstliche Intelligenz. vol. 1. 2004. pp. 17-23. pdf

  3. Krieger, Hans-Ulrich, Drozdzynski, Witold, Piskorski, Jakub, Schäfer, Ulrich, and Xu, Feiyu. A Bag of Useful Techniques for Unification-Based Finite-State Transducers. Proceedings of 7th KONVENS. 9 2004. pdf

LoPar/Whiteboard Topoparser

  1. Helmut Schmid. LoPar: Design and Implementation. Arbeitspapiere des Sonderforschungsbereiches 340, No. 149, IMS, University of Stuttgart, Germany, July 2000. pdf

  2. Anette Frank, Markus Becker, Berthold Crysmann, Bernd Kiefer, Ulrich Schäfer: Integrated Shallow and Deep Parsing: TopP meets HPSG. Proceedings of ACL-2003, pages 104-111, July 2003, Sapporo, Japan. pdf

  3. Anette Frank and Markus Becker: A Stochastic Topological Parser of German. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pages 71-77, 2002, Taipei, Taiwan. pdf


  1. Briscoe, Edward J. and Carroll, John. Robust accurate statistical annotation of general text. Proceedings of LREC-2002. Las Palmas, Gran Canaria. 2002. pp. 1499-1504.

  2. Briscoe, Ted, John Carroll and Rebecca Watson. The Second Release of the RASP System. Proceedings of the COLING/ACL 2006 Interactive Presentation Sessions. Sydney, Australia, July 2006. Pages 77-80. pdf


  1. Hans-Ulrich Krieger. SDL - A Description Language for Building NLP Systems. Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL Workshop on the Software Engineering and Architecture of Language Technology Systems, SEALTS. 2003. pp. 84-91. ps

  2. Hans-Ulrich Krieger. SDL - A System Description Language. German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI). RR-03-01. Research Report. 2003. ps

  3. Hans-Ulrich Krieger. SDL - A Description Language for Specifying NLP Systems. Proceedings of the 3rd AMAST Workshop on Algebraic Methods in Language Processing, AMiLP-3. 2003. ps


  1. Ulrich Callmeier. PET - A Platform for Experimentation with Efficient HPSG Processing Techniques. Natural Language Engineering. vol. 6 (1). 2000. pp. 99-108.

  2. Ulrich Callmeier. Efficient parsing with large-scale unification grammars. Saarland University, Computer Science Department. Saarbrücken, Germany. 2001. pdf

HPSG Grammars

  1. Emily M. Bender, Dan Flickinger, and Stephan Oepen. The Grammar Matrix. An Open-Source Starter-Kit for the Rapid Development of Cross-Linguistically Consistent Broad-Coverage Precision Grammar. Proceedings of the Workshop on Grammar Engineering and Evaluation at the 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Taipei, Taiwan. 2002. ps.gz

  2. Emily M. Bender and Dan Flickinger and Frederik Fouvry and Melanie Siegel. Ideas and Strategies for Multilingual Grammar Development. Proceedings of a Workshop during the 5th European Summer School for Logic, Language and Information. Vienna, Austria. 8 2003.

  3. Crysmann, Berthold, Frank, Anette, Kiefer, Bernd, Krieger, Hans-Ulrich, Müller, Stefan, Neumann, Günter, Piskorski, Jakub, Schäfer, Ulrich, Siegel, Melanie, Uszkoreit, Hans, and Xu, Feiyu. An Integrated Architecture for Shallow and Deep Processing. Proceedings of ACL-2002, Association for Computational Linguistics 40th Anniversary Meeting, July 7-12. Philadelphia, USA. 2002. pdf

  4. Crysmann, Berthold. On the efficient implementation of German verb placement in HPSG. Proceedings of RANLP 2003. 2003.

  5. Crysmann, Berthold. Relative Clause Extraposition in German: An Efficient and Portable Implementation. Research on Language and Computation. Volume 3 number 1, Pages 61-82, 2005. pdf

  6. Dan Flickinger. On building a more efficient grammar by exploiting types. Collaborative Language Engineering. A Case Study in Efficient Grammar-based Processing. Edited by Dan Flickinger and Stephan Oepen and Hans Uszkoreit and Jun-ichi Tsujii. CSLI Publications. 2002. pp. 1-17.

  7. Valia Kordoni and Julia Neu. Deep Grammar Development for Modern Greek. Proceedings of the ESSLLI Workshop on Ideas and Strategies for Multilingual Grammar Development. Vienna, Austria. 2003. pp. 65-72. ps

  8. Müller, Stefan and Kasper, Walter. HPSG Analysis of German. Verbmobil: Foundations of Speech-to-Speech Translation. Edited by Wahlster, Wolfgang. Berlin. Springer. 2000. pp. 238-253.

  9. Stephan Oepen, Emily M. Bender, Ulrich Callmeier, Dan Flickinger, and Melanie Siegel. Parallel Distributed Grammar Engineering for Practical Applications. Proceedings of the Workshop on Grammar Engineering and Evaluation, COLING-2002 Post-Conference Workshop. Taipei, Taiwan. 2002. pp. 15-21.

  10. Siegel, Melanie and Emily M. Bender. Efficient Deep Processing of Japanese. Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Asian Language Resources and International Standardization, COLING-2002 Post-Conference Workshop. Taipei, Taiwan. 2002. pp. 31-38.